Several studies have identified certain types of organic chemicals as the main culprits behind various diseases. In this article, we will explore the effects of Organochlorine pesticides, Polychlorinated biphenyls, and organophosphates. The reactivity of these chemicals and their different structures are key factors that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease. The chemicals in question are widely used in our daily lives.
Researchers have found that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are responsible for an elevated risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and this risk has been associated with a variety of health outcomes, including diabetes and heart disease. However, despite the associations, no study has specifically examined the relationship between organochlorine pesticides and these health outcomes in Chinese populations. One such study, called the SEARCH Cohort Study, examined serum and urine samples from 87 adolescents and young adults with diabetes, with a follow-up visit five years later.
This study was conducted using Microsoft Excel version 2010 for data presentation and SPSS software version 17.0 for statistical analysis. To make a statistical difference between two groups, t-test and chi-square/Fisher tests were used. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for data distributions of normally-distributed variables and Mann-Whitney tests were used for non-Gaussian models.
Another study, the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) Study, involved over a thousand men and women from across Sweden. This large study investigated the relationship between PCB congeners and BMI. The results showed that the TNC effect was present even at low levels of exposure and was particularly strong in obese subjects.
There is a growing body of evidence that organophosphates are at fault for the rising incidence of diabetes and heart disease in Asian populations. They induce inflammation, and they increase the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which mediate insulin resistance. However, while many studies are cross-sectional, few examine the overall effect of organophosphate exposure. It is therefore vital to conduct well-conducted research on this widespread problem so that we can develop policies to counter the growing threat of diabetes and heart disease in Asia.
The evidence also supports the notion that chronic exposure to organophosphates enhances systemic inflammation. Proinflammatory cytokines increase in the liver, which is a major cell confronting these cytokines. The inflammatory cytokines activate IkB kinase-b, which is critical for the action of insulin in the blood. Intoxication of organophosphates also activates JNK signalling. This pathway is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress and proinflammatory cytokines released in the liver.
Exposure to organophosphates occurs through skin contact, ingestion of contaminated food, and inhalation. These toxins move through the soil and can contaminate groundwater. Ingestion of organophosphates has been associated with hyperglycemia and new-onset diabetes mellitus. Other research suggests that home pesticide use may also contribute to childhood cancer.
Many people are unaware that polychlorinated biphenyls can cause cancer. In fact, recent studies have linked this group of chemicals to non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cutaneous melanoma. They are also known to cause cardiovascular disease mortality. Two studies conducted by the University of California at Berkeley and Harvard University found that PCBs are directly responsible for the development of heart disease and diabetes.
Several studies have linked PCBs to cancer, diabetes, and other health problems. One study by Davies H found that polychlorinated biphenyls caused an increase in deaths in Taiwanese children and adults. Another study by Koh WX examined the effects of dibenzofurans on pediatric mortality, and one by Brown KW found that the chemicals cause a higher rate of liver and lupus deaths than children who were not exposed to PCBs.
Although polychlorinated biphenyls were banned in the US in the late 1970s, their presence in the environment remains a problem. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that were widely used in building materials and electrical equipment before the ban. Since these compounds are resistant to degradation, they continue to affect humans. Sadly, this may be too late for the public to take action.